With the exception of recent attempts by eastern ethnic polities to gain greater autonomy and enduring tensions between the large ethnic polities in the southern highlands (often exacerbated by land disputes very little large-scale political and social action hinges on ethnic identification. Ethnicity does not underpin large-scale political action, and ethnic conflicts are rare. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space. Virtually all urban settlements—small towns and villages as well as large cities—are built around a central plaza where most church- and state-related buildings and offices are situated. This typically mediterranean social, political and cultural "center" use of space is replicated in many urban and rural homes; most consist of compounds and internal patios surrounded by tall walls where cooking, eating, and socializing take place. Modern skyscrapers are found primarily in la paz and Cochabamba. In the highlands, most dwellings are built of adobe. Food and Economy, food in daily life.
The wars of independence (independence was achieved in 1825) were led by Spanish-speaking Creoles who consolidated a highly exclusive social order. The disenfranchised majority in the colonial period fared little better after independence: power and privilege were monopolized by a tiny group of landowners and mine owners, and most Bolivians (primarily poor quechua- and Aymara-speaking peasants and a smaller number of mine workers) were virtually excluded. Only after the 1952 populist revolution did most Bolivians begin to enjoy the rights and privileges of citizenship. The sense of nationhood and national identity is shared by all Bolivians but, given the historical disenfranchisement of the peasant majority, probably is of recent origin. Most authors point to the wars of the pacific and the Chaco and the 1952 populist revolution (along with hydra subsequent state-building efforts) as the key events that created a sense of nationhood. A strong feeling of national identity coexists with other identities, some ethnic and some not, with varying levels of inclusiveness. Regional identities, such as Spanish speakers in the Oriente contrasting themselves with quechua- or Aymara-speaking highland dwellers, have always been important. For members of lowland ethnic polities, self-identification as Mojeño or Tacana is important in everyday life. In southern highland ethnic politics, shared historical memories and cultural practices such as dress bolster ethnic identification as Macha, sakaka, or jukumani. The construction of a national identity that would override ethnic and other identities has been an important but only partly successful dimension of state-building efforts.
memories associated with disastrous wars and the subsequent loss of national territory. Schoolchildren are taught about the war of the pacific (18791884 in which Chile overwhelmed Bolivia and Peru and seized Bolivia's coastal territories, and nationalism is intertwined with ongoing efforts to reclaim access to the pacific. The war of the Chaco (19321935 in which Bolivia lost vast territories and oil deposits to paraguay, was critical for national consciousness-raising and the 1952 populist revolution. Other historical commemorations, such as Independence day and the widely celebrated date of the signing of the agrarian reform law also serve as catalysts for collective memories. The second complex centers on commemorating the indigenous, non-Hispanic cultural heritage of most Bolivians, especially in the rural highlands, where many quechua- and Aymara-speaking peasants see themselves as "descendants" of the "Incas and in national folkloric music and festivals. These festivals are multilayered symbolic "sites" that index things "Bolivian —and the multiclass, multiethnic character of these celebrations fosters differential claims to and forging of culture, history, memory, and symbols. History and Ethnic Relations, emergence of the nation. The highland regions were absorbed into the Incan Empire less than a hundred years before the Spanish conquest in 1532. For almost three hundred years Bolivia, or "Upper Peru" (Alto perú formed part of the Spanish Empire, and the potosí silver mines were crucial for the colonial economy.
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In 1992, decolte the population was 6,420,792, with 58 percent in urban areas (settlements of two thousand or more persons an increase of 16 percent over the 1976 census. The fastest-growing urban centers include cochabamba, santa Cruz, and la pazel Alto, which account for over a third of the population. A low population density of fifteen inhabitants per square mile is paralleled by a young, fast-growing population (over 41 percent less than fifteen years old). Spanish, the national and official language, is spoken in urban centers, while the dominant languages in the rural highlands are quechua (the Incan lingua franca) and Aymara and in the southeast guaraní. Members of the Oriente ethnic polities (e.g., guarayos, mojeños, tacanas, movimas, Chimanes) speak spanish and their indigenous languages, which are members of the Amazonian language family. Many trilingual (Spanish, quechua, and Aymara) speakers live in Oruro and Potosí. Because of the greater prestige of Spanish, between 19, monolingual Spanish speakers increased almost 10 percent while those speaking only quechua or Aymara dropped 50 percent. According to the 1992 census, at least 87 percent of all those over six years old spoke spanish, an 11 percent increase over 1976 (although many are barely functional in Spanish). In 1992, 46 percent of residents were at least partly bilingual.
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Medicine, through efficient and dedicated organization, will license, monitor, discipline, educate, and when appropriate, rehabilitate physicians and other practitioners to assure their fitness and competence in the service of the people of Florida. The board regulates medical doctors; physician assistants; radiology technicians; respiratory therapists; nurse-midwives; acupuncturists; practitioners of oriental medicine ; perfusionists; behavioral specialists; and athletic trainers. Medicine is required by law to identify prescribers who must complete 2 hours of continuing education (CE) in pain management, proper prescribing of controlled substances, and the diagnosis and management of addiction. Bo -se (selenium, vitamin E) is recommended for the prevention and treatment of white muscle disease (Selenium-Tocopherol Deficiency) syndrome in calves, lambs, and ewes. Clinical signs are: stiffness and lameness, diarrhea and unthriftiness, pulmonary distress and/or cardiac arrest. Traditional Chinese medicine nis Chinese medical Center is an established professional medical clinic that provides comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine services including custom Chinese herbs, acupuncture, and dietary therapy.
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These terms describe the internal working of the mind/body/spirit in ways that are significantly distinct from Western ideas. We are always accepting New Patients because we do mens not keep our patients sick!
Nis Chinese medical Center is an established professional medical clinic that provides comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine services including custom Chinese herbs, acupuncture, and dietary therapy. Clinics are located in Melbourne and Jacksonville beach, Florida, treating all health problems for all ages from everyday care to critical care, from pain to internal illness. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the oldest and continually practiced literate medicine in the world. It is a 5,000 year-old system of balancing the bodys own health-preserving forces. Optimum conditions for maintaining and restoring wellness are achieved by using the powers of your unified mind/body/spirit. This approach creates self-healing opportunities not available through brein traditional Western medicine. Unlike western medicine that views the body as a composite of analyzable tissues, biochemical reactions and organ and glandular functions, Chinese medicine views the dynamic life process through the interconnected relationship of essential substances, organ systems and channels.
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Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a leader in hyaluronzuur the nineteenth-century wars of independence against Spain. The national culture is an amalgam of Hispanic and pre-hispanic elements with three cultural traditions: (1) quechua/ Aymara (roughly 34 percent and 23 percent of the population, respectively centered in the high-altitude plateau and valley mountain regions (highlands) and corresponding to the two (Quechua- and. At 424,162 square miles (1,098,581 square kilometers bolivia is the fifth largest country in south America. Bordering Peru and Chile to the west, Argentina and Paraguay to the south, and Brazil to the north and east, it is divided into nine politicaladministrative units called departments. There are three major geographicecological landscapes: the high and cold plateau ( altiplano ) between the eastern and western Andean mountain chains (Cordillera Oriental and Cordillera Occidental) at 12,000 to 14,000 feet (4,000 to 4,500 meters) above sea level, the intermontane valleys ( valles ). The sparsely populated Oriente—swamp, grasslands, plains, and tropical and subtropical forest—constitutes over 70 percent of the country. Historically, bolivia has been predominantly rural, with most of its quechua- and Aymara-speaking peasants living in highland communities. The 1992 census confirmed that 80 percent of the people live in the highlands and noted increasing rural to urban migration.